What has the biggest impact in the Arctic? Climate change or globalization?

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Roads in northern Norway connect the most remote areas with the rest of country being small settlements to urban cities. Photo Vera Hausner.

Global connections and globalization are changing resource use systems all over the Arctic. In the Arctic the speed of globalization has accelerated in concert with broad band internet, new transport routes, changed accessibility and increased resource extraction activities. Changes, which have received less attention than the direct effects of global warming.

Global connections already permeate the Arctic societies through education, cultural and economic differentiation, and by the use of new technologies which affect both the use of land and resources as well as communities’ relation and perceptions of their surrounding environments. Arctic residents are in many regions living a more urban lifestyle where traditional ways of living and cultural norms conflict with the new social frames emerging due to globalization.Changes in values, norms and resource management is important for how we define ecosystem services and their conditions.

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Hunting of humpbacked whale in front of the urban capital of Greenland, Nuuk. Whale hunting is controversial as residents discuss who should benefit from the whales, the local hunters or the tourist agencies? Photo: Fernando Ugarte.

URBANIZATION


How might globalization and urbanization offer alternative livelihoods, wage labor and increased importation of food, thus reducing the demand for the traditional resources. Traditional subsistence culture and practices might be influenced by globalization through the diffusion of ideas, meaning and values. As a result, the younger generations’ interest in traditional harvests might weaken, reducing the demand for the traditional fish and wildlife resources.


A WORLD OF TECHNOLOGIES


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Douglas Aggark and Savannah Issaluk harvesting a seal near Chesterfeield Inlet in Nunavut using snowmachines as transport to facilitate hunting. Photo Nils Lokken.

Global connections through adoption of new technologies have historically changed resource use systems in the Arctic.

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Portable chargeable jumper for vehicles are important in the cold of Noorvik. Photo: Jen Schmidt.

The adoption of snowmachines in the 1970’s changed reindeer pastoralism by allowing for herd expansions on winter pastures and by changing the possibilities for herders to commute to and from their herds. Snowmachines have allowed hunters in North America to hunt more efficiently and reduced the need for fish used as dog food  (Fauchald et al. 2017).

Traffic from ATV’s has also altered the spatial land use which in some regions cause concern about drainage and vegetation effects. In the coming decades mobile phones and internet could create more efficient hunting practices and markets, and become important drivers of environmental changes and institutional innovations. In the Canadian Arctic local markets have developed by use of Facebook for distributing caribou meat on a regional scale (Fauchald et al. 2017).

In Arctic Norway Facebook has been used to inform dogsledders about the location of reindeer herds to avoid conflicts. Internet and communication technologies may also ease monitoring and reduce enforcement costs as in the case of the Finnmark Estate in which hunters use internet to register and submit catch reports. Alaska is in the forefront of developing internet solution for mapping traditional knowledge or by using public participatory GIS. These new and emerging communication networks induce institutional innovations, and are paramount for the identification of sustainable pathways as they will influence existing rules, local norms, and the accessibility to new markets through tourism and resource extraction industries (Fauchald et al. 2017).

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In Arctic Norway Facebook has been used to inform dogsledders about location of reindeer herds to avoid conflicts. This could be implemented else where inf the future, in regards to tourism, hunting, dogsledding and herding of animals. Photo: Ann Eileen Lennert.

INFRASTRUCTURE


Market access in the Arctic is limited by transport routes, and infrastructure related to tourism and resource extraction industries that may lower transport costs of food, equipment, and gasoline for ATVs/snow machines, thereby changing the lifestyles, land use and harvest of fish and wildlife. Proximity to markets and influx of tourists may also provide new sales and distribution opportunities, which is the case for reindeer meat in Scandinavia and Russia.

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A permafrost freezer in Arctic Russia which use may not only alter because of climate change but globalization factors. Photo: Dorothee Ehrich.

Resource extraction industries generate spillover effects by increasing cash income, providing a market for services (e.g. accommodation, restaurants, stores), and immigration of non-local workers. Additionally, locals may be employed, adapt their spatial land use, and adopt new practices and lifestyles, such as engaging with nature more for leisure than subsistence, thereby changing the perception of landscapes as well as traditional ecological knowledge. Cash income may also increase inequalities in communities, which may undermine social cohesion and therefore conformance to community norms of resource use.


THE ROLE OF TRUST


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Knowledge about local attitudes towards wildlife management strategies is important being local fishermen from Norway, local hunters from Greenland and Canada, reindeer herders from Norway and Russia, sheep farmers, scientists, urbans or just people moving around in the Arctic landscapes in different ways and for different purposes. Photos: Ann E. Lennert, Vera Hausner, Jens Erik, Nicolas Nèreau, Fernando Ugarte and Jen Schmidt.

The legitimacy of decisions is based on trust and support from citizens. More specifically support or positive attitudes are usually required for conservation success. Knowledge about local attitudes towards wildlife strategies is important for creating a base of public trust for succesful management (Lokken et al. forthcoming).


IMPACTS OF GLOBAL PERCEPTIONS


But globalization and the “world wide web” is also playing an important role in the co-management and trust.

People from other countries are controlling the management of polar bears based on what they hear. People who have never seen a polar bear are trying to control them.

-Joseph Issaluk

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A polar bear caught close to the town of Sisimiut on the western coast of Greenland. The meat is important as food for the people living there as well as the fur used for clothing and the claws and skull used for art.

Here a globalized view of a pristine animal can to some degree set the frames of management and trust.

During data collection we were struck by the consistently strong negative responses around polar bear management. In this region polar bears have been intensively studied and the results of that research have been used to justify harvest quota reductions despite the objections of communities that bears remain abundant (Lokken et al. 2017 forthcoming).


CONNECT– Global connectedness and changing resource use systems in the Arctic


Is a project I currently am working on now. It views the  Arctic as coupled to the rest of the world through flows of goods, services, information and people. CONNECT is based on a research collaboration between researchers in US, Canada, Russia, Greenland and Norway that study how global connections through resource extractive industries, tourism, technologies and accessibility influence ecosystems and local communities in the Arctic. More specifically, we focus on how local societies adapt to arctic changes, or adopt new technologies, lifestyles and norms, that subsequently change resource uses, landscapes and ecosystem services.

The rapid changes occurring in the Arctic could affect ecosystem services that is important for indigenous and local communities. In CONNECT we have adopted a bottom up approach to ecosystem services research by using participatory mapping together with local participants to define sociocultural values and local priorities. We developed a mixed-methods interview design targeting resource users – and local decision makers in 28 communities in Russia, Norway, Alaska, Canada and Greenland. We include open questions for qualitative interpretation, but combine them with quantitative instruments to ensure comparability among the 28 cases. Additionally the perceptions and values are mapped by local communities are analyzed in relation to global connectedness.

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